Types of joints in human body

We know that the joint is the junction of bones and there are about 206 small and large bones in our body. There are different types of joint as per there structure, function and location. Here, we will discuss the different types of joint present in our body.

According to the mobility, these are of mainly three types:5

1. Freely movable:

i. Ball and Socket joint: A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cup-like socket of another bone, which permits the most freely moving type of joint, examples: synovial joint of shoulder and hip.

ii. Hinge joint: It works exactly like a hinge of a door i.e. motion in one plane e.g. Interphalangeal and elbow joints.

iii. Pivot joint: Thebone rotates within ring-like ligament over the other bone. i.e. uniaxial rotation, eg radio-ulnar joint.

iv. Ellipsoidal joint (condyloid): Theoval surface of bone fits in another commentary depression of other bone. Itpermits all angular motions Examples: wrist (radiocarpal) joints.

v. Saddle joint: similar to the ellipsoidal joint, but allows greater movement eg. thumb (carpometacarpal) joint.

vi. Plane joint or gliding joint: only slipping and gliding movements are allowed, its articular surfaces are flat e.g. intercarpal / intertarsal joints.

2. Slightly movable: these are generally the cartilaginous joint.

3. Immovable joints: e.g. Fibrous joints of the skull

According to the type of joint tissue: (Figure 6)

1. Synovial joint: Here the adjoining bones have a space between them referred to as the synovial (or joint) cavity, filled with synovial fluid. e.g. Knee joint, shoulder joint, hip etc.

2. Fibrous Joint: Thebones are held together by fibrous connective tissue. E.g. suture in skull

3. Cartilaginous joint: Here, the bones are connected by the cartilage. Example: rib joints, inter-vertebral joints.